For example, if survey respondents are ages 21, 33, 33, 45, and 76, the modal age is Hypothesis Testing Statistical tests to determine whether a hypothesis is accepted or rejected. Sampling Error -- the degree to which the results from the sample deviate from those that would be obtained from the entire population, because of random error in the selection of respondent and the corresponding reduction in reliability.
Control Group -- the group in an experimental design that receives either no treatment or a different treatment from the experimental group. Duration Models A group of statistical models used to measure the length of a status or process. If the P-value approach is new to you, you might have to spend a little more time on this lesson than if not.
Qualitative and quantitative research It is useful to have an understanding of qualitative and quantitative research techniques, and knowing which type of research is appropriate for the issue you are investigating.
There are several coding strategies that can "fill in" missing data for statistical analyses.
For example, consider the following format: Cohort A group of people sharing a common demographic experience who are observed through time. An understanding of more complex statistical concepts is necessary for more in-depth analysis of data.
Bias Influences that distort the results of a research study. Confidentiality The protection of research subjects from being identified. For example, all the people born in the same year constitute a birth cohort.
Students are strongly encouraged to take STATthoroughly review the materials that are covered in the sections above or take additional coursework that focuses on these foundations. Semantics -- the relationship between symbols and meaning in a linguistic system.
Endogeneity occurs when the dependent variable may actually be a cause of the independent variable. Generalizability The extent to which conclusions from analysis of data from a sample can be applied to the population as a whole. If you wanted to fully understand how your program works, you could organize data in the chronological order in which customers or clients go through your program.
An unreliable indicator cannot produce trustworthy results. Positivism -- a doctrine in the philosophy of science, positivism argues that science can only deal with observable entities known directly to experience.
Data collection generally takes place over an extended period of time. Explanatory Analysis A method of inquiry that focuses on the formulating and testing of hypotheses.
It is exactly in this area of interaction between theoretical orientation and empirical observation that opportunities for originality and creativity lie. In-depth Interviewing A research method in which face-to-face interviews with respondents are conducted using open-ended questions to explore topics in great depth.
Interpreting information Attempt to put the information in perspective, e. Alpha Level The probability that a statistical test will find significant differences between groups or find significant predictors of the dependent variablewhen in fact there are none. That is, statistical tests show whether the differences between the outcomes of the control and experimental groups are great enough to be statistically significant.
Constructivism -- the idea that reality is socially constructed. A theory is not as specific as a hypothesis. This caution is not to fault these people, but rather to recognize the strong biases inherent in trying to objectively look at and publicly at least within the organization report about their work.
Were key players able to carry out their duties. There is no "perfect" research design. Internal Consistency -- the extent to which all questions or items assess the same characteristic, skill, or quality.
Be sure employees have a chance to carefully review and discuss the report. Theory -- a general explanation about a specific behavior or set of events that is based on known principles and serves to organize related events in a meaningful way.
Correlation Coefficient A measure of the degree to which two variables are related. Distribution -- the range of values of a particular variable. In many datasets, the most frequently observed value will occur around the mean and median values, but this is not necessarily the case, particularly where the distribution of the dataset is uneven.
Claim -- a statement, similar to a hypothesis, which is made in response to the research question and that is affirmed with evidence based on research. Statistical literacy is relevant to everyone. Mike Gogulski, available at http: Testing -- the act of gathering and processing information about individuals' ability, skill, understanding, or knowledge under controlled conditions.
Variable -- any characteristic or trait that can vary from one person to another [race, gender, academic major] or for one person over time [age, political beliefs].
The dichotomous variable is coded as either 0 or 1. Knowledge of how statistics relates to the scientific method. Statistics in research is not just about formulas and calculation. (Many wrong conclusions have been conducted from not understanding basic statistical concepts) Statistics inference helps us to draw conclusions from samples of a population.
Making use of statistics in research basically involves. Learning basic statistics; Understanding the relationship between probability and statistics; Comprehension of the two major branches in statistics: descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
Knowledge of how statistics relates to the scientific method. Upon completion of this review of basic statistical concepts, you should be able to do the following: Distinguish between a population and a sample.
Distinguish between a parameter and a statistic. A set of logical interrelated concepts, statements, propositions, and definitions, which have been derived from philosophical beliefs of scientific data and from which questions and hypotheses can be deduced, tested and verified.
Start studying statistical issues. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. This helps to increase existing knowledge and provide more knowledge for concepts that are not fully understood. more research support for suggesting improvements in each field as more knowledge is gained.
Statistics. Epistemology-- concerns knowledge construction; asks what constitutes knowledge and how knowledge is validated. Ethnography -- method to study groups and/or cultures over a period of time. The goal of this type of research is to comprehend the particular group/culture .Knowledge of statistical terms and concepts enable interpret research reports more accurately